The Hagia Sophia, one of the verifiable compositional marvels that still stays standing today, has a significant spot in the craftsmanship world with its design, grandness, size and usefulness.
The Hagia Sophia, the greatest church developed by the East Roman Empire in Istanbul, has been built multiple times in a similar area. When it was first assembled, it was named Megale Ekklesia (Big Church); be that as it may, after the fifth century, it was alluded to as the Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom). The congregation was the spot in which rulers were delegated, and it was likewise the greatest operational house of prayer in the city all through the Byzantine time frame.
The main church was developed by Emperor Konstantios (337-361) in 360. The principal church was secured with a wooden rooftop and extended vertically (basilica) yet was torched after the open uproar that occurred in 404 because of the differences between Emperor Arkadios’ (395-408) spouse sovereign Eudoksia and Istanbul’s patriarch Ioannes Chrysostomos, who was banished. The patriarch’s mosaic representation can at present be seen at the tymphanon divider situated in the northern piece of the congregation. No remaining parts have been recouped from the primary church; be that as it may, the blocks found in the historical center stockpiling marked ‘Megale Ekklesia’ are anticipated to have a place with the main development.
The second church was reproduced by Emperor Theodosios II (408-450) in 415. This basilical structure is known to contain five naves and a momentous passageway; it is likewise secured by a wooden rooftop.
The congregation was annihilated in January 13, 532, after the open mob (Nika revolts) that occurred amid the fifth year of Emperor Justinianos’ rule (527-565), when the ‘blues’ who spoke to the blue-bloods, and the ‘greens’ who spoke to the tradesman and shippers in the general public, teamed up against the Empire.
Stays discovered amid the unearthings driven by A. M Scheinder of the Istanbul German Archeology Institute, 2 meters subterranean dimension, incorporate advances having a place with the Propylon (amazing entryway), section bases and pieces with sheep embossings that speak to the 12 witnesses. Furthermore, other engineering pieces that have a place with the fantastic passageway can be found in the west greenery enclosure.
The present structure was built by Isidoros (Milet) and Anthemios (Tralles), who were famous designers of their time, by Emperor Justinianos’ (527-565) orders. Data from antiquarian Prokopios states that the development that started on February 23, 532, was finished in a brief time of five years and the congregation was opened to revere with a function on December 27, 537. Assets demonstrate that on the opening day of the Hagia Sophia, Emperor Justinianos entered the sanctuary and stated, “My Lord, thank you for giving me opportunity to make such a venerating spot,” and pursued with the words “Süleyman, I beat you,” alluding to Süleyman’s sanctuary in Jerusalem.
The third Hagia Sophia development consolidated the three conventional basilical plans with the focal arch arrangement in structure. The structure has three nefi, one apsi, and two narthex, inside and outside. The length from the apsis to the external narthex is 100 m, and the width is 69.5 m. The tallness of the arch starting from the earliest stage is 55.60 m and the range is 31.87 m in the North to South course and 30.86 in the East to West bearing.
Sovereign Justinianos requested all territories under his rule to send the best engineering pieces to be utilized in the development with the goal that the Hagia Sophia could be greater and more fantastic. The sections and marbles utilized in the structure have been taken from old urban communities in and around Anatolia and Syria, for example, Aspendus Ephessus, Baalbeek and Tarsa.
The white marbles utilized in the structure originated from the Marmara Island, the green porphyry from Eğriboz Island, the pink marbles from Afyon and the yellow from North Africa. The enriching inside divider coatings were set up by isolating single marble obstructs into two and consolidating them so as to make symmetrical shapes.
Also, the structure incorporates sections got from the Temple of Artemis in Ephessus to be utilized in the naves, just as 8 segments brought from Egypt that help the vaults. The structure has an aggregate of 104 segments, 40 in the lower and 64 in the upper display.
Every one of the dividers of the Hagia Sophia aside from the ones secured by marble have been designed with astoundingly excellent mosaics. Gold, silver, glass, earthenware and vivid stones have been utilized to make the mosaics. The plant-based and geometric mosaics are from the sixth century, while the figured mosaics go back to the Iconoclast time frame.
Amid the East Roman time frame, the Hagia Sophia was the Empire Church and, therefore, was the spot in which the rulers were delegated. The zone that is on the privilege of the naos, where the ground surface is secured with beautiful stones making an entwining round structure (omphalion), is the area in which the Eastern Roman Emperors were delegated.
Istanbul was involved by Latins somewhere in the range of 1204 and 1261, amid the Holy Crusades, when both the city and the congregation were harmed. The Hagia Sophia was known to be in rough shape in 1261, when Eastern Rome assumed control over the city once more.
Following Fatih Sultan Mehmed’s (1451-1481) overcome in 1453, Hagia Sophia was redesigned into a mosque. The structure was sustained and was all around ensured after this period, and stayed as a mosque. Extra supporting columns were introduced amid the East Roman and Ottoman periods because of the harm that the structure experienced because of quakes in the area. The minarets structured and actualized by Mimar Sinan have likewise filled to this need.
A madrasah was worked towards the North or Hagia Sophia amid Fatih Sultan Mehmed’s rule. This development was abrogated in the 17. Century. Amid Sultan Abdülmecid’s (1839-1861) rule, remodels were led by Fossati and a madrasah was revamped in a similar spot. The remaining parts have been found amid the unearthings in 1982.
Amid the sixteenth and seventeenth century Ottoman period, mihrabs, minbar, maksoorahs, a preachment stand and a muezzin mahfili (a unique brought stage up in a mosque, inverse the minbar where a muezzin bows and serenades in light of the imam’s supplications) were added to the structure.
The bronze lights on opposite sides of the mihrab have been given as blessings to the mosque by Kanuni Sultan Süleyman (1520-1566) after his arrival from Budin.
The two marble 3D shapes going back to the Hellenistic time frame (3 – 4 B.C.) on the two sides of the principle entrance have been uncommonly brought from Bergama and were given by Sultan Murad III (1574-1595) as endowments.
Amid the Sultan Abdülmecid period somewhere in the range of 1847 and 1849, a broad redesign in the Hagia Sophia was directed by the Swiss Fossati siblings, where the Hünkâr Mahfili (a different compartment where the sovereigns supplicate) situated in a specialty in the Northern area was evacuated and another towards the left of the mihrab was assembled.
The 8-7.5 m breadth calligraphy boards that were composed by Caligrapher Kadıasker Mustafa Izzet Efendi were put in the fundamental dividers of the structure. The boards that read “Allah, Hz. Muhammed, Hz. Ebubekir, Hz. Ömer, Hz. Osman, Hz. Ali, Hz. Hasan ve Hz. Hüseyin” are known to be the greatest calligraphy boards in the Islamic world.
The Hagia Sophia was changed over into an exhibition hall by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s requests and has been working as one since February 1, 1935, inviting both neighborhood and outside guests. As indicated by a deed dated 1936, the Hagia Sophia is enrolled as “Ayasofya-I Kebir Camii Şerifi for the Fatih Sultan Mehmed Foundation for maoseleum, akaret, muvakkithane and madrasah on 57 pafta, 57 island and seventh bundle.”